Diet for type 1 and type 2 diabetes

dietary features in diabetes mellitus

"Diabetes is not a sentence, but a way of life" - endocrinologists continue to repeat this phrase. Adherence to a therapeutic diet is one of the main points in the treatment of diabetes, which allows the patient to lead a full life.

Diet in diabetes is a leading component of treatment. This disease lacks insulin - a special hormone of the pancreas that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. The main sign of diabetes is an increase in blood sugar, but the violation of carbohydrate metabolism does not remain isolated, but leads to an imbalance in both protein and fat metabolism.

Diet in diabetes is not just a restriction of carbohydrates. The patient's diet also includes those products that contribute to the normalization of the functioning of other organs and systems, which are usually affected by this endocrine disease. For example, in concomitant obesity, which occurs quite often, the menu includes as many vegetables as possible, which contain few calories but give a feeling of satiety: cucumbers, tomatoes, spinach, peas, cabbage, lettuce. Given that in many cases diabetes also affects the liver, extractives (meat and fish broths) are limited in the diet, but they must include cottage cheese, soy and oatmeal, which have a beneficial effect on liver function. And damage to the cardiovascular system dictates the restriction of salt in the diet for patients with diabetes.

The existing two types of diabetes require a different dietary approach. In type 1 diabetes, diet is not so important - the emphasis in treatment is on the use of insulin, which makes the diet of such patients less restrictive. But in type 2 diabetes, diet is paramount - in the early stages of the disease, in many cases it is possible to control blood sugar levels only by following medical dietary recommendations without prescribing antihyperglycemic drugs.

However, the diet for each type of diabetes has general principles, the observance of which makes it possible to stabilize the metabolism of carbohydrates to one degree or another.

Diet for diabetes: basic principles

  • Feeding is frequent, regular, at the same time - at least 4 times a day.
  • Even distribution of caloric and nutritional value of the diet on main dishes.
  • Variety, including a wide range of products recommended for diabetics.
  • Eating xylitol or sorbitol to sweeten food.
  • Calorie control in the daily diet using special tables.
  • Limit the liquid to 1200 ml, including first courses.
  • Inclusion of foods rich in vitamins in the diet: rosehip broth, yeast, etc.
  • Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels with dietary adjustments, depending on the results obtained.

Type 2 Diabetes Diet

All therapeutic diets in modern medicine are usually marked with numbers for ease of use. In the case of diabetes, the classic diet has the number 9 - otherwise they say "table number 9".

What is diet number 9 for diabetes?

Recommended dishes:

  1. bread (with emphasis on rye cakes) 200-300 g;
  2. vegetable broth soups;
  3. meat and poultry cooked or steamed;
  4. low-fat cooked or steamed fish;
  5. vegetables: white cabbage or cauliflower, lettuce, rutabaga, cucumbers, radishes, beets, carrots, potatoes;
  6. eggs - 2 pieces per day;
  7. unsweetened fruits and berries: apples, oranges, lemons, cranberries, cranberries, red currants;
  8. kefir or yogurt - 200-400 ml per day;
  9. cottage cheese up to 200 mg per day;
  10. soft sauces, including dairy;
  11. snacks: vinaigrette, salad, jelly fish;
  12. drinks: tomato juice, tea with milk, unsweetened juices, sugar-free compotes;
  13. oil and vegetable oil - 40g per day.

Restricted use:

  1. cereals, legumes and pasta are consumed to a limited extent, while reducing bread consumption;
  2. soups based on weak fish or meat broth - no more than 2 times a week;
  3. sugar and diabetic candies - on a doctor's recommendation;
  4. milk - on doctor's recommendation;
  5. cheese, cream, sour cream - limited;
  6. coffee.

Forbidden:

  1. chocolate, pastries, cakes, pastries, honey, jam and the like;
  2. pork and lamb fat;
  3. spicy, salty and smoked dishes:
  4. sweet fruits: bananas, raisins, grapes;
  5. alcohol in any form.

Table 9 is a diet for diabetics during the period of stabilization of the disease. If the patient's condition worsens for any reason, the diet usually becomes more restricted. In any case, only a doctor can give definitive dietary recommendations for type 2 diabetes.

Type 1 Diabetes Diet

In type 1 diabetes, the diet is determined by the administration of insulin, so the same recommendations are usually followed by those patients with type 2 diabetes who need insulin injections.

In terms of composition, such a menu does not differ much from the diet in type 2 diabetes, but sugar is completely excluded. Despite this prohibition, patients receiving insulin are advised to always carry a piece of sugar or candy, which may be necessary in the event of a threat of a hypoglycaemic condition - a condition of low blood sugar levels, the severity of which is possible. serious condition - coma.

Modern blood glucose meters and carbohydrate tables allow these patients to lead a more nutritious lifestyle. The current concept - a unit of bread (XE) equal to 12 g of carbohydrates - allows patients with diabetes receiving insulin to periodically eat even non-recommended foods or eat more carbohydrates. However, the patient must measure his blood sugar before each meal and, based on the forthcoming menu, expressed in XE, inject the required amount of short-acting insulin. A special table is used to calculate bread units.

All of the above does not mean that a patient with type 1 diabetes can eat everything and in any quantities: one meal should not have more than 7-8 XE. For overweight patients, these restrictions are even stricter.

Characteristic of the diet of type 1 diabetes is the high protein content. This requirement is especially important for patients with infectious complications and manifestations of trophic disorders of the limbs.

The preparation of a detailed diet, alternation of meals and hourly administration of insulin should be performed only by the attending physician.

Diet for weight loss in diabetes

Patients with diabetes mellitus, especially type 2, are often overweight. Therefore, the issue of limiting the caloric content of the diet for such patients may be particularly important. In this case, however, none of the "fast" mono diets should be used. Such a ban is explained by the high risk of developing a severe hypoglycaemic condition (critical reduction in blood sugar) in the case of a balanced diet, and in patients with type 1 diabetes and moderate type 2 diabetes is almost inevitable.

If you are overweight, the diet for weight loss in diabetes involves a correction of the usual therapeutic diet № 9 with a reduced content of refined carbohydrates (sugar) and some fat reduction. However, such decisions should not be made without the advice of a doctor: only together with a doctor will the patient be able to formulate a safe diet with reduced calories.

09.01.2021